HIV exposure, pre-natal treatment associated with obesity later in life
NEW ORLEANS – Teens and young adults who were exposed to HIV and antiretroviral therapy before birth but are inherently HIV-negative, according to a survey to be presented on Saturday, March 23 at ENDO 2019, increased the risk of obesity and symptoms , similar asthma. Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society in New Orleans, La.
"These findings show that all children of HIV-infected mothers – also a large proportion of HIV-negative – need to be closely monitored throughout life," said Lindsay T. Fourman, lead researcher at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. , Mass.
More than 1 million babies are born annually in the world to mothers with HIV. With the advent of antiretroviral treatment to prevent transmission of HIV during pregnancy, up to 98% of these children may be exposed to HIV but uninfected (HEU). The long-term effects of exposure to HIV and antiretroviral therapy have not been well studied during pregnancy.
The study included 50 adolescents and young adults (13-28 years) and 141 adolescents and young adults who were not exposed to HIV during pregnancy, comparable with age, gender, race, ethnicity and postal code. The researchers found that obesity was present in 42% of adolescents and young adults in the ZOU, compared with 25% of those who were not exposed.
They found that the prevalence of reactive respiratory tract diseases or symptoms similar to asthma was higher in younger adults of the HEU than their unexpected peers (40 percent compared to 24 percent). In the last trimester of pregnancy, researchers also examined the level of the mother's immune cells, called CD4 cells. A minor CD4 in maternal transmission before pregnancy is associated with a more serious HIV infection during pregnancy. The study showed that the CD4 count of the lower third trimester was strongly associated with an increased body mass index (ITM) in adolescents from the ZOU. ITM is a measure of body fat in terms of height and weight. "This points to a biological link between the intrauterine environment in HIV and the long-term metabolic results of offspring," said Fourman.
"In a broader sense, this study adds more and more evidence that the intrauterine environment is an important but irrelevant determinant of long-term metabolic health. The findings can lead to findings with applications for other groups with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases, including individuals born mothers with obesity or diabetes, "she said.
"According to our information, this study includes the oldest cohort of HEU, which has been reviewed so far, thus ensuring the most long-term assessment of health complications between this growing and aging population," said Fourman. "Our study is also the first to show that adolescents and young adults are at high risk of increased risk of obesity and metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed to further determine the unique metabolic risks associated with exposure to and uterus of HIV, both that screening, prevention and treatment measures can be properly targeted at this group. "
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