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Subaru Telescope Sees 1800 Supernova



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Japanese astronomers captured images of stunning supernova 1800. 58 of these supernovae are of scientifically important type 1a supernovae, which are 8 billion light-years away. Supernovae type 1a is known in astronomy as "standard candles".

The Astronomer team used the Subaru telescope and one of the most powerful digital cameras in the world to find these supernovae. Astronomers come from the Institute of Physics and Mathematics of Kavlia (IPMU), the University of Tohoku, the University of Konan, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and other institutions. The group was led by Professor Naoki Yasuda of IPMU, whose results were published online in the publications of the Japanese Astronomical Society.

Supernova is a star that has reached the end of her life and exploded brilliantly. The supernova lights up the sky for up to six months and can shine the host galaxy. These supernovae type 1a or standard candles are especially useful because of their uniform light. Because their light does not change much, they are ideal for accurately measuring their distance from the Earth. Standard candles are used to measure the velocity of space propagation.

This picture shows some supernovae recorded in the study. On the left, the star before exploding, the center after exploding, and the right is the supernova itself (the difference between the first two images.) Image Credit: N. Yasuda et. al.
This picture shows some supernovae recorded in the study. On the left, the star before exploding, the center after exploding, and the right is the supernova itself (the difference between the first two images.) Image Credit: N. Yasuda et. al.

Although the team found 1800 supernovae, of which 58 were standard candles, they were actually looking for something more vague.

In recent years, astronomers have reported a second type of supernova, which is even brighter than type 1a. These are called Super Luminous Supernovae because they are so bright. They can be up to 10 times brighter than other supernovae and their extraordinary brightness allows astronomers to observe them at extreme distances.

This is important because when astronomers look at objects in the extreme distant universe, they see the light that left them billions of years old. In this way, astronomers look back in time to the early days of the universe. They can look at the situation in the early universe, which allowed the emergence of these first, big stars.

Artist's impression of the super-glittering Supernova (SN 2006gy which is not part of this study.) Credit for the picture: With credits: NASA / CXC / M.Weiss more.html # sn2006gy_xray, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org /w/index.php?curid=2080784
Artist's impression of the super-glittering Supernova (SN 2006gy which is not part of this study.) Credit for the picture: With credits: NASA / CXC / M.Weiss more.html # sn2006gy_xray, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org /w/index.php?curid=2080784

Although this study revealed 1800 supernovae, there are still rare events. There are only a handful of telescopes that can capture sharp images. These efforts by the Japanese team used one of these ranges, the Subaru Telescope, and brought it together with one of the best digital cameras in the world to find these supernovae.

The camera is Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC). It is a huge camera that is larger than a human and is attached to the Subaru 8,2-meter telescope at Maunakea Hawaii. Hyper Suprime-Cam boasts a huge 870 megapixel camera.

Hyper Suprime-Cam illustration with a human figure next to it for the measure. Image Credit: National Astronomical Observatory in Japan.
Hyper Suprime-Cam illustration with a human figure next to it for the measure. Image Credit: National Astronomical Observatory in Japan.

In six months, Professor Yasuda and his team repeated footage of the same areas of the night sky. When looking for stars that appeared suddenly brighter before they disappeared, supernovae could be identified.

This sky map shows all the 1800 supernovaes discovered in this study. Every red dot is a supernova. Blue circles are areas that Hyper Suprime-Cam can capture in one shot. Background is a picture from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The Moon shows the area of ​​the night sky, which can be captured by the HSC. Image credit: IPMU hooks, partial data: SDSS
This sky map shows all the 1800 supernovaes discovered in this study. Every red dot is a supernova. Blue circles are areas that Hyper Suprime-Cam can capture in one shot. Background is a picture from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The Moon shows the area of ​​the night sky, which can be captured by the HSC. Image credit: IPMU hooks, partial data: SDSS

In general, the team discovered 1800 supernovae, which is a surprising number. (Compare this with the Hubble Space Telescope, which took 10 years to discover 50 supernovae that were more than 8 billion light years from Earth.) Of these, 400 were desirable type 1a type supernatants, of which 58 8 billion light-years from Earth. It is even more striking that five super-bright supernovae have been identified.

"Subaru Telescope and Hyper Suprime-Cam have already helped researchers create a 3D map of the dark matter and observe the original black holes, but now this result proves that this instrument has a very high search capability for the supernova very, very far from the Earth. thank all my colleagues for their time and effort and look forward to analyzing our data to see what a picture is about the universe, "says Yasuda.

Determining the extent of the universe is one of the most important goals of astronomy and cosmology. Supernova data from this study will help astronomers improve their assessment of this stage and help them understand the dark energy, the mysterious force that drives expansion.

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