Ice formation VII. / © Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
And now scientists already know why this is happening. A new study of a very unusual ice type, also known as Ice VII, has shown how this ice can be generated at a speed that exceeds 1,000 kilometers per hour (1610 km / h) and how it can be connected with others – worlds of sparkling origin.
The natural type of this ice was discovered in March this year. He was trapped in diamonds deep under the Earth. In the last study, this type of ice was thoroughly studied and explained how it was formed. The process seems to be completely different from the usual freezing of ice in the ice.
Based on the mathematical model developed by researchers from the National Laboratory Lawrence Livermore in Canada, there is some pressure that causes the Ice VII to begin to develop rapidly. This almost instantaneous transformation process is called "homogenous nucleation".
"This is a regime in which our perception of physical knowledge is tested," said one of the authors of the study, physicist Aleks Chernov.
Scientists have already found that ice VII can be formed at high temperatures and under intense pressure – about 100,000 times greater than normal atmospheric pressure. However, experiments have shown that in such conditions it is formed in a homogeneous (almost every ice at a time) and heterogeneous (formation from the surface to the inside).
So far, such a thing means that physicists are turning around and wondering: what's going on here? A new study shows that there is a particular reason why such a process occurs – that is, the temperature differences between running water and emerging ice crystals.
The atomic structures of these types of ice or different ice phases themselves differ in crystals. And this has a decisive influence on the process of converting liquid water into solid ice. Scientists have found out that Ice VII is originally formed as a group of molecules and starts within the water body into a low-end.
Such a process is partly dependent on the fact that at the time of nucleation there is no thermal point, the point where the liquid becomes solid, and such a point exists under normal pressure and ice production, as we know.
"There is no need to slow down the process of heat removal, and the speed of ice formation depends on a very fast process of molecular control," Chernov said.
Now that we have a mathematical model corresponding to experimental data, it can be used for all other fields of research. The very existence of Ice VII Ice was theoretically described and created in the laboratory before it was naturally discovered in diamonds.
Explanation of the new origin of ice VII at the molecular level can affect areas such as: data storage, synthesis of materials and many other areas.
Molecular Ice Ice Application VII © Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
It can also benefit from searching for life forms on other planets. Existence of water is a key indicator used to determine whether other planets have life forms. But if the water is pressed, so it changes into Ice VII, then you can hardly expect to find any kind of life.
"Water in ocean worlds bombarded by the remnants of other planets, such as meteors or comets, is changing intensively, and therefore life can not survive," said Jonathan Belof, a senior chemical researcher.
So this is another way of determining whether life on the glacial planet can exist and a fantastic example of how physics restrictions are still pushed back.
The results of the study were published in Physical Review Letters.