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Leukemia, symptoms and types


Leukemia, symptoms and types

"I have leukemia." Coach Bologna Siniša Mihajlović Speaking at a press conference, he moves, but decisively: "I will defeat her, I'm not afraid, I will face her and win." What is it? What should be monitored? According to what was reported on the website of the Cancer Research Foundation, the cells that form the corpuscular part of the blood (red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets) originate from immature cells, also called stem cells or explosions produced by bone marrow, spongy tissue, which is contained in long bones and some straight bone. One is in people with leukemia uncontrolled spread of these cells, which impedes the growth and development of normal blood cells ".

TYPES – The leukemia we read "are usually divided into acute and chronic, according to the rate of progression of the disease. In acute leukemia, the number of cancer cells increases rapidly, and the onset of symptoms is early, while in the case of chronic leukemia the malignant cells are prone. to reproduce slowly, but eventually even chronic forms become aggressive and cause an increase in the number of leukemic cells in the bloodstream.

Another important difference, in addition, "refers to the cells from which the tumor originates: if the disease originates from bone marrow lymphoid cells (from which leukocytes, called lymphocytes, develop), we are talking about lymph leukemia if, instead, the departure cell is a myeloid of the type (from which red blood cells, platelets and other leukocytes, excluding lymphocytes, are developed), called myeloid leukemia.

Therefore, the most common types of leukemia are four: acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL); chronic lymphocytic leukemia (LLC); acute myeloid leukemia (AML); Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). Then there are other, more rare types of leukemia, such as hairy cell leukemia.

SYMPTOMS – "Chronic leukemia may not give rise to symptoms in the early stages, as leukemia cells have a limited effect on the function of other cells. In acute leukemia, symptoms occur early and can be exacerbated at extreme speed" is still read.

"Lymphocytic cells, like other cells in the blood, move in the body. Depending on the number and location, the manifestations can be different – experts warn – for example, fever, night sweats, fatigue and fatigue, headache, bone and joint pain, loss body weight, pallor, susceptibility to infection, bleeding or enlargement of the spleen and lymph nodes.

What's more, "sometimes an excess of abnormal white blood cells can infiltrate the organs (stomach, intestines, kidneys, lungs) or nervous system, which gives specific symptoms indicating the malfunction of the affected organ. Symptoms are not convinced by signs of leukemia, because they are common to many others illness, so a doctor should be consulted to investigate the nature of any illness.

DIAGNOSIS – "Medical examination is very important to check whether there has been an increase in lymph nodes, a liver or a spleen, and to detect any suspicious signs such as, for example, pallor or frequent bleeding," the Aircatcher still remembers. "Blood tests, especially blood counts and kidney and liver function indicators, provide useful information: in leukemia, the number of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets changes in comparison with standard values. There is also a" smear "that allows you to observe blood cells under the microscope. This simple test is very useful for diagnosis, because cancer cells often look different from their usual counterparts. "

"To complete the diagnosis a bone biopsy and a rachicentesis is needed. The first procedure consists of a small bone marrow sample that needs to be analyzed under a microscope to determine the presence of all the leukemic cells at this site." Cefalorachidiano (a liquid that fills the brain around the brain and spinal cord) through a very thin needle inserted between the two lumbago vertebrae to evaluate whether the leukemia has reached the nervous system. These tests "can be linked to radiography, ultrasound, or CT to measure the extent of disease in the body."

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