Mars surface can be drilled and ice-covered: provide protection for human survival – Scientific research – cnBeta.COM


Beijing's time on January 10, according to foreign media reports, is the first challenge faced by the first human competitors who arrived at Mars, the lack of water. If people in the future will land on Mars, they will need drinking water, water for crop production, and even rocket fuel to return to Earth. However, Mars has a lot of ice, and NASA's latest research report states that people on the surface of Mars can drill wells to get enough water to maintain human life.


According to a recent NASA survey, people drill holes on the surface of Mars to get enough water to maintain human life.

In 2018, scientists discovered the glaciers burying them under the surface of Mars, which can provide unlimited water for the first visitors to Mars. Currently, Marsa's surface erosion has exposed 8 freezing points, some of which are very shallow, only 1 m below the surface of Mars, and the deepest freezing point is 100 m below the surface of Mars or even deeper.


The principle of "Rodrigues Well" is drilling through the surface to the ice under ice, melting ice, forming a pool and then extracting water. By continuously pumping heat into a groundwater pool, a reservoir and a continuous water supply system are gradually formed.

Mars data from the 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data showed that these underground layers of ice are "pure ice." The NASA study simulates the use of drilling and melting wells at the moment. Stephen Hoffman, a researcher at Texas Airlines in the United States, said that a large amount of running water flows on the surface of Mars, but the general belief is that the surface of Mars is completely exhausted.

Several recent studies have shown that many areas on the surface of Mars are potentially flooded with water, including landing candidates, considered as future human tasks. If these reservoirs can help people complete the Mars mission, significant changes may occur in future Mars missions. The research team is currently collaborating with Greenland's "Rodrigues Wells", mined by the US Army in the early 1960s when it tried to drill and collect underground ice.

How is the Mars underground glacier formed?

Researchers say that the underground glaciers of the Martians have long been deposited in the form of ice and snow, while exposed parts of these sediments are relatively pure water ice, and the surface is covered with a few meters of thick water ice and stone dust.

Mars contains ice and color changes, indicating that it is shaped into layers, possibly by accumulating ice over a longer period of time. Researchers believe that these ice formations are relatively late because the surfaces of these areas look smoother.

How to drill Mars resources?

The research team is currently conducting research on "Rodrigues Wells" mined by the US Army in Greenland in the early 1960s and since then the drilling technology has been used in remote areas, including Amundsen Scott Antarctica. Station.

The principle of "Rodrigues Well" is drilling through the surface to the ice under ice, melting ice, forming a pool and then extracting water. By continuously pumping heat into a groundwater pool, a reservoir and a continuous water supply system are gradually formed.


Researchers say that some vehicles on the rover have the possibility of drilling and searching for water on the surface of Mars.

In the report, the researchers emphasized that by examining the technical aspects of water extraction from these surface layers of ice, we found a solution that seemed feasible in the Martian environment: drilling a floating layer on the surface of Mars and designing a Reservoir of groundwater.

Rodriguez vortices melt ice by drilling underground ice and form a pool, which is then pumped out of the pool. The tank and the system for continuous water supply are formed by continuously pumping heat into the pool.

Mars built "Rodrigues Well" to consume 380 liters of water per day!

Every day, 380 liters of water are produced, which is close to the daily consumption of the water of the Americans, but it is 10 times daily water consumption by the astronauts of the International Space Station. A recent article in the Science magazine has reported that although scientists have long known that ice exists on the surface of Mars, a better understanding of its depth and location can be a key to future human exploration of the Martian environment.

Co-author of the study, Shane Byrne of the Moon and Planet Laboratories of the University of Arizona, said: "People need water, wherever they go, the transfer of water is very difficult and inconvenient. The idea of ​​getting human water from Mars earlier is to suggest water from a very dry Martian atmosphere or decay the rocks with water. We found a buried almost pure water ice under the surface of Mars.

At the same time, he stressed that we do not need high-tech solutions, you can take a bucket and a shovel to collect the water you need. These Mars freezing points are very close to places where people could land, instead of Mars's polar ice caps that are not suitable for people to live.

These freezing points are located on the northern and southern hemisphere of Mars, with a latitude of between 55 and 58 degrees, which is the same as the Scottish or South peaks of South America. Researchers believe that the formation of the Martian underground layer of ice is relatively late because the surface of these areas looks very smooth and no celestial part has collided with craters that formed on the surface of Mars.

Scientists have found that most of the Martian ice cliffs are located near the polar regions, and some of the remains in the winter will slip into cold and dark cliffs that are not suitable for establishing long-term human camps. However, if one can extract the sample from one of the underground glaciers, researchers can understand the climate history of Mars and the possible life on Mars.

The researchers used the Mars Odyssey Orbiter spectrometer, a ground-breaking radar, and the Mars Expressa orbit of the European Space Agency to directly observe a large underground layer of ice at the ice cubic fracture. At the same time we can find underground ice by watching a new collision.

Bourne said: "It's like an ant farm, you can see the ant's nest hidden in the soil through the side glass." Scientists have not yet determined how these special ice caves were originally formed.

However, when the underground ice layer is exposed to Mars's atmosphere, it is likely that ice rocks will become wider and higher during the regression process when the ice is sublimated from the solid state into water vapor. In some of these areas, the exposure of the water ice is more than 90 meters thick.

Colin Dundas, a geologist from the US Geological Survey, said: "The distribution of this underground layer to ice is more extensive than previously thought. About a third of the surface of Mars is shallow, recording the history of Mars in modern times. We saw an ice cross-section on an ice cliff will give us a more detailed 3D view than ever before. "

Using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter "Crystal Mars Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer" (CRISM), the researchers confirmed that there is noticeable light material frozen water, not a thin layer of frost that covers the surface of Mars. Previously, researchers used Mars Exploration Orbiter (SHARAD) floating Mars radar to map an iceberg of groundwater in the mean latitude of Mars, with which the top of the underground layer rated ice at less than 10 meters from the surface.

Leslie Tamppari, deputy project scientist at the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter magazine, said that if you conduct research missions at these locations, you can sample rock formations along the slopes to get a detailed insight into the history of the Mars climate. What happens to Mars's running water over time: Where do they exist? When was the ice put off? When will it disappear? This will be the secret to be revealed. (Ye Liancheng)


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