Disease Disease: Knowing the main symptoms and knowing how to protect your baby


By 4 or 5 years, your child's immune system is still under preparation (Photo: Getty Images)

The arrival of the autumn is synonymous with great temperature changes and low humidity. These factors, together with pollution, apply to some of those who are responsible for increasing respiratory illness during this season. Children only have 8 to 11 infections viral infections per year. This means that your child has a practically every month illness. And I think that up to 4 or 5 years, his immune system is still in the making, and the viruses gain power during autumn and winter, because the more sick people are more circulating.

According to the Department of Informatics of the Single Health System (DATASUS), these diseases are among the main causes of hospitalization in Brazil every year affecting more than one million people. Therefore, all concern is small. Ricardo Souza Queiroz, an allergist and immunologist from the São Cristóvão Saúde group, says that asthma, rhinitis and sinusitis are the most common problems during this period.

This is because when the weather is dry, the nasal mucosa becomes dry and does not filter the air in the right way – it ends in the lungs full of contaminants and allergenic particles. When someone already has a genetic predisposition to respiratory allergies, a reaction of the immune system, which involves runny nose and tear, is triggered.

Childhood allergies usually occur when the child is exposed to aggravating factors such as the presence of mites, fungi and animal hair. In the case of rhinitis, the hereditary factor affects the manifestation of these allergies: if you or your partner have a disease, the child's chance is 30%. However, if both have allergic rhinitis, the option is increased to 70%. "For this reason, children are more sensitive to the detection of allergenic elements, which increases the chance of triggering the disease," explains the expert.

In addition to triggering allergies, malfunction of the mucous membrane may also cause bacteria and viruses to remain unnoticed through the respiratory system inlet. In order to avoid complications, it is important that the influenza vaccine is up to date, without taking into account the myth that immunization against influenza viruses is poor.

How are autumn and winter illnesses?

The main symptoms are sneezing, coryza, obstruction of the nose, itching of the nose, ears, throat, cough and shortness of breath. Treatment, which is usually indicated, is based on antihistamines with or without decongestants, bronchodilators and corticosteroids. "But everybody has potential side effects, so we advise you not to treat yourself and we always advise you to consult an expert when there is suspected allergy," said Dr. Clovis Galvão, Member of the Allergy and Immunology Allergy Brazilian Association).

Viral or bacterial images, in more serious cases, also occur due to contact with other children, especially in schools. "People do not open windows to the air and the virus is concentrated." In most cases, respiratory problems, such as common colds, colds, coughing or fever, improve in three to five days, "explains Milena de Paulis, a pediatrician at Israelita Albert Einstein Hospital, Milena de Paulis, daughter Lucia and Rema .

You must take care that the frost does not extend to the lungs and trigger in bronchiolitis, an infection that causes tiredness of the breathing and chewing in the chest. The second common disease is stomatitis, "throat", balls that spread through the gums, throat and face. The child has greater difficulty in secreting the secretions, especially because their cavities are small – the ear, nose and mouth. Also in the major are tonsillitis, chicken pox – especially in the spring and autumn – and diarrhea.

How to prevent it

Some care can prevent a child from serious illness. To prevent dropping allergies, it is advisable to avoid overcrowding, crowds, frequent hand washing or alcohol use, influenza vaccination and environmental monitoring:

– Visit the school and observe hygiene if the room is ventilated, especially in winter. See also if your employees are well-targeted. Pediatric control is valid.

– Let the child play with nature: it is good to have contact with sand, with grassy courtyard, with water. This will strengthen the immune system and make it easier to contact other children. Take the child to always wash your hands.

– Breast-feeding and consequently healthy nutrition are also crucial.

"A good night's sleep is important: the newborn should sleep about 20 hours a day, and from the age of two, it is sufficient for ten hours and the remainder of the two hours during the day. Already in the pre-school (1 to 4 years), it's ten hours long. he will not sleep late and you wake up too early to enjoy the morning sun, which is less aggressive and will help to increase your defense.

Disinfect items and surfaces regularly at home and avoid exposure of children to cigarette smoke.

– Another factor that interferes with immune resistance is emotional: a pleasant environment, whether at school or at home, is essential to stay healthy and happy!

And when does it get sick?

If your child is ill, it is important not to go to school. It is a concern for the health of colleagues and also for his, because the immunity will be lower and the recovery will be more difficult. In addition, the child is more susceptible to other diseases at the time. If you think your child often gets sick and causes more complications than usual, go to the doctor. Remember to always monitor your pediatrician.

What is it?

If your child becomes ill, it is the best weapon of information. Get to know the main illnesses and symptoms to keep an eye on you


What is: viral infections in the upper respiratory tract.

Cause: There are more than 200 types of viruses. They penetrate the body through the mouth, eyes, nose. The infection passes through the air or physical contact. Symptoms: runny nose, sneezing, cough, sore throat, pain in the body and low body temperature.

When to go to a doctor: rebound and high heat.


What is: respiratory infection caused by influenza virus.

Cause: in the air or through direct contact with people with influenza.

Symptoms: fever, pain, fatigue, dry cough, sneezing, coryza.

When to go to a doctor: if the child has severe pain in the head, in the body and difficulty breathing.


What is: lung infection.

Cause: bacterial or viral infections, poorly dried frost, smoke exposure and air conditioning.

Symptoms: high fever, chest pain, poor digestion, non-use, cough and difficulty breathing.

When to go to a doctor: if the child has a high, depressed fever with yellow or greenish mucous membranes and difficulty breathing.


What is: inflammation of the membrane surrounding the nasal cavity and sinuses.

Cause: allergies, infections or as a result of upper respiratory tract infections that have not been properly treated.

Symptoms: headaches, pressure on the top of the head and sinuses, clogged nose, coryza, cough.

When to go to a doctor: if the child has fever, weakness, headache, chest on the face and upper part, malaise and worsening of cough with greenish discharge.


What is: bronchial infections, consequences that transmit air into the lungs. The disease affects mainly infants and children up to 2 years of age.

Cause: the main cause is respiratory sinusitis.

Symptoms: air gap and breathing. Fever, beating and coughing.

When to go to a doctor: if the child has a fever, a depressed look, rapid breathing with effort, chest tightness and bluish limbs.


What is: inflammatory diseases of the lower respiratory tract (bronchi).

Cause: There are various causes of asthma that can be allergies caused by perfumes and scents, animal hair, mites or some foods, such as milk or eggs.

Symptoms: constipation in the chest, difficulty breathing and wheezing. It can also cause irritability, food rejection, forced breathing and intense nostalgia.

When to go to a doctor: if your child has difficulty breathing or even talking. If there is a bluish color around the mouth.


What is: Ear infection, which may be external, is located in the ears or in the middle, attached to the part of the inner ear.

Cause: Most infections are caused by viruses, bacteria or fungi. It usually occurs during or after flu, colds or throat or respiratory infections.

Symptoms: loss of hearing, loss of appetite, elimination of ear secretion and fever. Smaller children sometimes have vomiting and diarrhea. In external otitis, severe pain and sound.

When to go to a doctor: if the child shows irritation and is excreted from the ears.


What is: chronic inflammatory mucous membrane disease. In acute cases it lasts up to three weeks and in chronic cases it lasts for more than 21 days.

Cause: contact with dust, mites and fungi, air conditioning, sudden changes in temperature.

Symptoms: runny nose, cough, sneezing, red eyes, itchy eyes and nose. If left untreated, it can expose the child to other respiratory diseases, such as sinusitis and asthma attacks.

When to go to a doctor: if the child is upset, has difficulty breathing or has swollen lips or eyes. And worse than coughing.


What is: Inflammation of almonds caused by viruses and bacteria.

Cause: viral cases occur as a result of colds and flu and disappear when the body improves. Already those caused by bacteria need antibiotic care.

Symptoms: sore throat, difficulty swallowing, fever above 38 °, headache and malaise, bad breath, lack of appetite, swollen almond and red, and the appearance of fertilizer.

When to go to a doctor: if throat is present in the throat, high fever and lack of appetite.

Read also:

Winter diseases: Get to know the risks and how to prevent them

Look after the disease that goes back to school

To wash your nose, you must also become familiar with washing your teeth and digging


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