Saturday , January 23 2021

Grafted stem cells in the patient's brain



Japanese researchers injected so-called "iPS" stem cells into the brain of a patient with Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this clinical trial is to test whether these cells can regenerate dopamine neurons and relieve symptoms.

Group teamKyoto University injected 2.4 million of these pluripotent cells, which can be in any type of cell in the left part the brain, in three hours last month. The man, in his fifties, was well tolerated and will now be under surveillance for two years now, according to a statement from the Kyoto University.

If no problem occurs in the next six months, additional 2.4 million cells will be implanted, this time in the right part of the patient's brain. It is expected that these IPS cells from healthy donors will grow neurons manufacturers of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in engine monitoring.

In July, Kyoto University announced the holding of this clinical trial with seven participants aged 50 to 69 years. "I welcome patients for their courageous and determined participation", commented Professor Jun Takahashi, who was today published by NHK's public television channel.

Pluripotent cells for creating new neurons

Parkinson's disease is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine neurons and has results symptoms which are gradually worsening, such as shivers, stiffness of the limbs and reduction in body movement. This affects more than ten million people around the world, depending on Parkinson's disease foundation USA. Currently, therapies are available "Improve symptoms without slowing down disease progression"explains the foundation.

This test follows an experiment that was performed on monkeys with stem cells of human origin, which have improved the ability to move receive a disease of Parkinson's disease, according to a study published late in August 2017 in a scientific journal nature. Survival of grafted cells by injection into the brain of primates has been observed for two years without tumor.

induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS for induced pluripotent stem cells), adult cells are returned to an almost embryonic state by expressing them four genes (usually inactive in adult cells). This genetic manipulation gives them the ability to produce all kinds cell (pluripotence) according to the site of the body, where they are then transplanted. The use of iPS cells does not represent fundamental ethical problems, unlike the source cells we take embryos people.

What to remember

  • Scientists from the University of Kyoto injected 2.4 million pluripotent cells into the patient's brain.
  • These cells of healthy donors will have to restore the dopamine neurons.
  • In total, the clinical trial should include seven patients.

Parkinson's disease: stem cells return to the monkeys

Article from Tokyo – AFP, published on February 25, 2012

Monkeys that develop the equivalent Parkinson's disease showed improvement in their symptoms after injection into the stem cell brain. Techniques could be tested in humans from 2015.

Monkeys who suffer from Parkinson's disease have advanced considerably after implantation of human stem cells into the brain, Japanese researchers reported today.

Four monkeys whose limbs spasmodically moved (common symptom syndrome for ParkinsonAnd those who fought to control their bodies showed signs of improvement three months after the operation, said Jun Takahashi, a professor atKyoto University, one of the authors of the study, published in Journal of Parkinson's Disease.

Six months after transplantationThe four tested primates were able to walk again in their cage, he added.

Jun Takahashi stated that during the implementation of 35% stem cells were dopaminergic neurons, about one-tenth of them were still alive a year later. In order to improve the effectiveness of treatment, I would like to increase this survival rate to 70%. He hopes that this experiment can be done on people as early as 2015. " First, we need to increase the number of dopaminergic neurons implant, in order to reduce the risk tumor " postoperative, he explained.

Pluripotent stem cells that occur in humans

Jun Takahashi and his team used this monkey experiment embryonic stem cellsbut in the case of medical experience, researchers think they are using them induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC) arising from the implantation of four types of genes into human skin reprogramming cells. These induced iPSCs, which are thus generated, return almost to the embryonic stage (undifferentiated).

Use embryonic stem cells, which many scientists believe is very promising, contrary. Religious groups believe that the culture of these cells is unethical and emphasizes this destruction of the embryo. However, in Japan nothing prohibits the use of these cells for scientific research.

Parkinson's disease is one of the main ones neurodegenerative diseasesby Alzheimer's disease. This is also one of the most common causes of engine interference accidents cerebrovascular disease.

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