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Breaks in perfect symmetry of the universe can be a window into a completely new physics


The Bible of particles physics dies for upgrading. And physicists can only have something: some particles and forces could be seen in the mirror and not recognized. This would in itself send the so-called Standard Model to the fence.

Nearly all the fundamental reactions between the subatomic particles of the universe look the same when mirrored in the mirror. A mirror image called a parity should then be said to be symmetrical or have a parity symmetry in physics.

Of course, everyone does not follow the rules. We know that for example, reactions involving a weak nuclear force, which is also strange for a number of other reasons, violates parity symmetry. This means that other forces and particles in the quantum world are also violators of rules in this field.

Physicists have some ideas about these other hypothetical reactions that would not be the same in the mirror and thus violate parity symmetry. These unusual reactions could point us toward a new physics that could help us move past the standard model of particle physics, our current summary of all subatomic things.

Unfortunately, we will never see most of these unusual reactions in our atomic breakers and laboratories. Interactions are too rare and weak to be detected by our instruments that are adapted to other types of interactions. However, there may be rare exceptions. Researchers at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), located near Geneva, are looking for these rare interactions. So far, empty hands have appeared, but this result is also illuminated. These negative results help eliminate hopeless hypotheses from reflection, allowing physicists to focus on more promising paths in the quest for new physics. [18 Times Quantum Particles Blew Our Minds]

One of the most important concepts in all physics is symmetry. It could even be reasonably argued that physicists are only symmetry hunters. Symmetries reveal the fundamental laws of nature that govern the deepest reality of reality. Symmetry is a big deal.

What is it? Symmetry means that if you change one element in a process or an interaction, the process remains the same. Physicists say that the process is symmetrical in relation to this change. Here, I am deliberately vague, because there are so many different types of symmetry. For example, you can sometimes change the cost of particulars, sometimes you can perform processes back or forth in time, and sometimes you can also run the version of the mirror process.

This latter, which looks at the process in the mirror, is called the parity symmetry. Most subatomic interactions in physics give you exactly the same result, regardless of whether they are performed in front of you or in a mirror. But some interactions violate this symmetry, such as the weak nuclear force, especially if the neutrons are produced in interactions involving this force.

Neutrines are always rotating "back" (in other words, the axis of their rotors points away from the direction of motion), while antineutrinos rotate "forward" (their axis of rotation is directed straight when they fly around). This means that there are very subtle differences in the number of neutrons and antineutrins that occur when you run regularly, compared to a mirror-based experiment based on a weak nuclear force. [Strange Quarks and Muons, Oh My! Nature’s Tiniest Particles Dissected]

As far as we know, a weak nuclear force and a weak nuclear force are breaking the symmetry of parity. But maybe it's not alone.

We know that there must be a physics that goes beyond what we currently understand. Some of these hypothetical ideas and concepts also violate parity symmetry. For example, some of these theories predict subtle asymmetries in otherwise normal interactions involving the types of particles that LHC is usually studying.

Of course, these hypothetical ideas are exotic, complex, and very difficult to test. And in many cases we are not completely sure what we are looking for.

The problem is that while we know that our current design of the Particle World, called the Standard Model, is incomplete, we do not know where to look for its replacement. Many physicists have hoped that the LHC will reveal something – a new piece, a new interaction, anything – that would point us towards something new and exciting, but so far all these searches have failed.

Many of the former theories, which are at the forefront of what is beyond the standard model (such as supersymmetry), are slowly excluded. There may be a violation of parity symmetry here.

Almost all common hypothetical extensions of the standard model include a limitation that only a weak nuclear force violates parity symmetry. (This is baked in the basic mathematics of models if you are wondering how this works.) This means that concepts such as supersymmetry, axions and leptokarkas preserve this symmetry that breaks exactly where it is and is nowhere else.

But, look, people, if these common extensions do not go beyond, may be the time to expand our horizons.

For this reason, a team of researchers searched for parity violations in the data cache triggered by the compact muon solenoid (CMS) experiment on the LHC; their results were described in detail in a study published on April 29 at the arXiv printing server. This was a rather complex search because the LHC is not really set to find parity violations. However, researchers have been cleverly determined how to do this by examining residues in interactions between other particles.

Result: No hints of parity violation. Hura for the standard model (again). Although disappointment then that this research has not opened a new boundary of physics, it will help clarify future searches. If we continue to search and still find no evidence of a parity violation outside the weak nuclear force, then we know that everything outside the standard model must have the same mathematical structures as these up-raising theories and only allow a weak nuclear force in the mirror is different .

Originally published on Live Science.

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