The giant superstars, which are only six light-years away, could still have the potential for imaginative life, the researchers found.
Barnard b (or GJ 699 b) is the newly discovered planet of super Earth circling around Barnard's star, making it the second closest star system on Earth.
We believe that the planet is extremely cold, with temperatures similar to the Jupiter Moon, Europe, at around -150 ° C (-238 ° F).
However, researchers say that they could have large, hot iron / nickel and enhanced geothermal activity, which would allow a flourishing of life.
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The frozen "super-earth" was discovered in orbit around Barnard's star, the closest one star to the sun. Despite the surface temperature of about -150 ° C, scientists believe that pockets of running water could lay under ice that can hold life (artistic impression).
"Heating with geothermal energy could support" living areas "below its surface, similar to underground lakes in Antarctica," said Edward Guinan of the Astronomical University of Villanova at the 223rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Seattle, WA.
"We find that the temperature of the surface of Jupiter's ice moon is similar to Barnard's b, but because of the warming of the tide, Europe has probably had liquid oceans under the ice surface."
"If water is present, heating with geothermal energy (volcanic water, openings, etc.) could result in the" living areas of running water "below the possible ice surface," they wrote in the accompanying paper.
"This is similar to Jupiter's ice-cold Europe, which is heated by tidal heating and not by geothermal energy."
"Barnard's star has been on our radar for a long time," Guinan said.
"The most important aspect of the discovery of Barnard's star b is that the two closest star systems to the Sun are now known as the host of planets.
"This is supported by previous studies based on Kepler's mission data, which suggests that planets can be very common in the whole galaxy, even in billions of miles," stressed Scott Engle, who is the author of this paper.
The newly founded planet, Barnard's star b (artistic impression), is rocky and at least 3.2 times larger than Earth. It surrounds a cold red-dwarf star smaller and older than the sun that performs one orbit every 233 days
Even Barnard's star is about twice the size of the Sun – about 9 billion years old compared to 4.6 billion years for the Sun.
"The universe produces planets of the size of the Earth much longer than we, or even the Sun itself, existed."
Barnard's star b, which has a mass more than three times larger than Earth, circulates around Barnard's star, red dwarfs, every 233 days, and at approximately the same distance as the Sun circles.
It passes close to the snow line of the smoke star.
Although very bad, Barnard B may be shown in future very large telescopes, says Guinan.
"Such observations will shed light on the nature of the atmosphere, the surface and the potential living environment," he added.
Despite the surface temperature of about -150 ° C, scientists believe that the gutters of running water could lie under ice that can hold back life.
The newly founded planet, Barnard's star b, is supposed to be rocky and at least 3.2 times larger than Earth.
His host, Barnard's star, is six light years from the Earth – barely a distance on astronomical scale – with a luminance of 0.0035 times greater than the sun's light.
The only nearby star system is the Alpha Centauri, which is composed of three stars bound by gravity, about four light years away.
The existence of the planet was confirmed after two decades of observations using a variety of terrestrial telescopes and instruments.
One of them was the latest and state-of-the-art instrument to catch the Carmenes planet at the Calar Alto Observatory in Spain.
Even the most powerful telescopes currently in use could not directly display Barnard's star b.
WHAT IS BARNARD'S STAR?
Barnard's star got its name after E.E. Barnard (1857-1923), discovered in 1916.
It is close to being not visible to the naked eye, although at the distance of only six light years, it is the second closest star to Earth – if we take into account the three stars of the Alpha Centauri system, including Proximo, as a unit.
This is what you would expect from smoke, low mass, grade M (M4) dwarf.
At 3.170 Kelvin (2.896 ° C / 5.246 ° F), this smoke dwarf has a light of 0.0035 times the sun's light, and most of it at the infrared end of the spectrum.
These emissions show that the diameter has only 20 percent of the sun's diameter and 17 percent of our closest star.
# Far from the rare, the vast majority of the stars belong to the category of M dwarfs, they are so weak – as Proxima Centauri – that they are not visible to the naked eye.
Barnard's star is six light years away from the Earth – barely a distance on astronomical scale – a dim dwarf with a luminosity of 0.0035 times the sun. The only near star system is the Alpha Centauri 4,4 light years away
Barnard's star is old, born before exploding stars, has increased the amount of interstellar metals to today, with a metal content of only 10% of the sun's content.
His age is also This confirms a long period of rotation of 130 days – the stars slow down age – five times longer than the sun.
Barnard's star also has some magnetic activity that occasionally shoots light caused by the release of magnetic field energy, has an active X-ray radiation that magnetically heats up to two million Kelvin – just like the Sun – and star pots, of which the period of rotation to join.
Barnard's low internal temperature and the low level of energy it has caused give it an extremely long lifetime.
In fact, no Class M goblets ever died, ever born in the entire history of the Galaxy.